2017 February 26th Volumes, volumes and volumes.

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Everything 'Real' has a volume and is made of volumes.

Although I have written about this subject before, I thought I would write a bit more to try and clarify even further my model of the Universe.

My model is based on 'Real' dynamic (quantum) volumes. [Complex volumes, the 'APE's].

Further explanation is required.

The first thing you have to understand is the concepts.

I named this Tea Break Book Volumes, volumes and volumes, because there are different types of volumes that make up our Universe. [³Volumes, ²Volumes and ¹Volumes].

The first concept is the Abstract volume that is used in mathematics. [⁰Volumes].

With this volume you have simple addition of volumes. So one litre (of something) plus one litre (of anything else) will always equal two litres.

The second concept is the 'real' volume, I.e. Anything that is real that can be measured in (volumes) litres.

With this volume you do not always have simple addition of volumes. So one litre (of something) plus one litre (of anything else) does not always equal two litres.

The third concept is that any 'real' volume is a function of the volumes of its constituent parts volumes.

This means that any volume that is real can be broken down to smaller and smaller volumes that create the larger volume.

The fourth concept is that there is a minimum volume that anything real can be broken down into.

This means that this minimum volume is a quantum of space itself.

In contrast to Abstract space where there is no such thing as a minimum volume, mathematically you can keep making smaller and smaller volumes of space.

To summarise :- I am saying that anything 'real' has a boundary that can be defined as a [Complex] volume, and any [Complex] volume can be broken down to smaller [Complex] volumes, each with their own boundaries, until you get to the smallest [Complex] volume that can exist that can not be broken down any further and still exist as a [Complex] volume with a boundary. Also when you add different [Complex] volumes together you do not always have simple addition.

I will use some examples to demonstrate what I mean.

If you find two containers or vessels that can measure one litre each, so that if you pour one litre of something from one to the other it will measure the same volume.

Now if you where to find a third vessel that can measure two litres of something, so that if you measured one litre of something in one of your previous containers and poured it into the larger container it will half fill it. If you did this again it would completely fill it, or if you first filled the larger container it could be poured exactly into your two smaller containers.

If real volumes of things reacted the same as abstract volumes then whatever way you measure them they will always be the same.

This does not always happen in reality. Fill one container with salt (so you have one litre of salt). Fill the second container with water (so you have one litre of water). Now slowly pour them both into the third container and you will see it will not be totally full, or if you pour the mixed volumes back into the smaller containers it will appear that some of the volume has disappeared (I.e. Not two litres).

You may say but that is because the salt had spaces around it, or the salt dissolved into the water (which really means that the water had spaces in it). You could probably conclude that one was a liquid and the other was a solid and I should not mix the two different states together. [I will come back to this later].

Let us now look at a volume of a gas of say oxygen (one litre) and a volume of say hydrogen (one litre). These are now in the same state (both gases).

If I put these two volumes together I do not get two litres of oxygen gas and hydrogen gas mixed. The volume shrinks.

You will probably say they reacted together to make some water therefore they have changed state again, you can't do that either. [later].

So let us look at a volume of oxygen gas (one litre), and one litre of carbon dioxide gas (one litre), (both gases), they don't react, do they equal two litres of gas? [back later].

Finally let us look at one litre of oxygen gas (one litre) and one litre of carbon monoxide gas (one litre), (again both gases).

Do they form two litres? [later]. You could get them to react to form carbon dioxide and less oxygen gas. What would be the volume of the gas mixture then? [later].

In chemistry and physics you can actually calculate how many molecules there are in a gas (at a standard temperature and pressure). It is approximately 6.218 x 10²6 (that is with 26 zeros). It doesn't matter the exact number but it is the same number for oxygen gas, carbon dioxide gas, or carbon monoxide gas.

One litre of gas has the same number of molecules in it, whatever the gas is.

Let us call it (A) number for short.

To better understand what I am trying to convey, each molecule of gas will have its own little volume, each atom will also have its own little volume.

So

one litre of oxygen gas will have (A) molecules of oxygen

one litre of carbon dioxide will have (A) molecules of carbon dioxide

and one litre of carbon monoxide will have (A) molecules of carbon monoxide.

But an

oxygen molecule is two atoms of oxygen, therefore 2 x (A) atoms

and carbon dioxide is one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen, therefore 3 x (A) atoms

and carbon monoxide is one atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen, therefore 2 x (A) atoms.

27th February 2017

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

You should be able to see that the sum of the molecules in each gas is equal, but you should also be able to see that the sum of the volumes of the atoms that create the molecules is different. Compare carbon monoxide with carbon dioxide which has an extra (A), 6.218 x 10²6 extra volumes of oxygen atoms, but the total volumes of the gases is the same! [3 x (A) atoms equals 2 x (A) atoms].

Therefore the sum of the volumes of the parts (atoms in this case) does not add up correctly.

Again someone may say that the gases have spaces in them as well, or that the atoms have been reacted together to give different volumes to the molecules.

Now if you look back at all the examples where the sums don't add up correctly you can always find an excuse to force the notion of abstract volumes, but these abstract volumes are hardly ever found in the real Universe, except where you make everything equal first and don't allow this thing to be broken down to its constituent parts. Eg. Water is the same as water, salt is the same as salt, oxygen is the same as oxygen, but the constituent parts of water don't add up, nor the constituents of salt, not even oxygen's constituent parts (which is oxygen) doesn't add up.

What you really need is a model that can sum up the volumes of all the constituent parts that makes sense irrespective of whether it is a mix of gas, liquid, solid or anything else. If you look carefully, every 'real' volume in the Universe has a space or spaces within it, all the way down to the atomic level and beyond that to the nuclear level until you get to the quantum of space itself (which also has a space (hole) in it.

The quantum ceases to exit below this level when you eliminate the hole, and therefore can not represent anything 'real' in our Universe.

The only sensible thing to do is to incorporate the spaces that are contained in all 'real' volumes. I.e. work out the volume and characteristics of the quanta (of space) that make the Universe.

I believe that everything is made of these [Complex] volumes of quanta of space themselves, and that the combinations of these quanta is what makes dark, light, energy and matter and anything else in our Universe. I also believe that there is only one type of space quantum I.e. There is only one constituent to the Universe at the lowest level. 'Real' space itself which incorporates empty spaces.

The standard model of the Universe has multiple fundamental units, I say all of them can be broken down to volumes of 'Real' space quanta. I.e. At the lowest level they all have the same constituents, just space in different combinations and configurations. [The 'APE's].

6th June 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Added [Complex] to some of the volumes to clarify my definition of a volume.

Morph your mind with Morphological at

apepes.com

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Everything 'Real' has a volume and is made of volumes.

Although I have written about this subject before, I thought I would write a bit more to try and clarify even further my model of the Universe.

My model is based on 'Real' dynamic (quantum) volumes. [Complex volumes, the 'APE's].

Further explanation is required.

The first thing you have to understand is the concepts.

I named this Tea Break Book Volumes, volumes and volumes, because there are different types of volumes that make up our Universe. [³Volumes, ²Volumes and ¹Volumes].

The first concept is the Abstract volume that is used in mathematics. [⁰Volumes].

With this volume you have simple addition of volumes. So one litre (of something) plus one litre (of anything else) will always equal two litres.

The second concept is the 'real' volume, I.e. Anything that is real that can be measured in (volumes) litres.

With this volume you do not always have simple addition of volumes. So one litre (of something) plus one litre (of anything else) does not always equal two litres.

The third concept is that any 'real' volume is a function of the volumes of its constituent parts volumes.

This means that any volume that is real can be broken down to smaller and smaller volumes that create the larger volume.

The fourth concept is that there is a minimum volume that anything real can be broken down into.

This means that this minimum volume is a quantum of space itself.

In contrast to Abstract space where there is no such thing as a minimum volume, mathematically you can keep making smaller and smaller volumes of space.

To summarise :- I am saying that anything 'real' has a boundary that can be defined as a [Complex] volume, and any [Complex] volume can be broken down to smaller [Complex] volumes, each with their own boundaries, until you get to the smallest [Complex] volume that can exist that can not be broken down any further and still exist as a [Complex] volume with a boundary. Also when you add different [Complex] volumes together you do not always have simple addition.

I will use some examples to demonstrate what I mean.

If you find two containers or vessels that can measure one litre each, so that if you pour one litre of something from one to the other it will measure the same volume.

Now if you where to find a third vessel that can measure two litres of something, so that if you measured one litre of something in one of your previous containers and poured it into the larger container it will half fill it. If you did this again it would completely fill it, or if you first filled the larger container it could be poured exactly into your two smaller containers.

If real volumes of things reacted the same as abstract volumes then whatever way you measure them they will always be the same.

This does not always happen in reality. Fill one container with salt (so you have one litre of salt). Fill the second container with water (so you have one litre of water). Now slowly pour them both into the third container and you will see it will not be totally full, or if you pour the mixed volumes back into the smaller containers it will appear that some of the volume has disappeared (I.e. Not two litres).

You may say but that is because the salt had spaces around it, or the salt dissolved into the water (which really means that the water had spaces in it). You could probably conclude that one was a liquid and the other was a solid and I should not mix the two different states together. [I will come back to this later].

Let us now look at a volume of a gas of say oxygen (one litre) and a volume of say hydrogen (one litre). These are now in the same state (both gases).

If I put these two volumes together I do not get two litres of oxygen gas and hydrogen gas mixed. The volume shrinks.

You will probably say they reacted together to make some water therefore they have changed state again, you can't do that either. [later].

So let us look at a volume of oxygen gas (one litre), and one litre of carbon dioxide gas (one litre), (both gases), they don't react, do they equal two litres of gas? [back later].

Finally let us look at one litre of oxygen gas (one litre) and one litre of carbon monoxide gas (one litre), (again both gases).

Do they form two litres? [later]. You could get them to react to form carbon dioxide and less oxygen gas. What would be the volume of the gas mixture then? [later].

In chemistry and physics you can actually calculate how many molecules there are in a gas (at a standard temperature and pressure). It is approximately 6.218 x 10²6 (that is with 26 zeros). It doesn't matter the exact number but it is the same number for oxygen gas, carbon dioxide gas, or carbon monoxide gas.

One litre of gas has the same number of molecules in it, whatever the gas is.

Let us call it (A) number for short.

To better understand what I am trying to convey, each molecule of gas will have its own little volume, each atom will also have its own little volume.

So

one litre of oxygen gas will have (A) molecules of oxygen

one litre of carbon dioxide will have (A) molecules of carbon dioxide

and one litre of carbon monoxide will have (A) molecules of carbon monoxide.

But an

oxygen molecule is two atoms of oxygen, therefore 2 x (A) atoms

and carbon dioxide is one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen, therefore 3 x (A) atoms

and carbon monoxide is one atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen, therefore 2 x (A) atoms.

27th February 2017

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

You should be able to see that the sum of the molecules in each gas is equal, but you should also be able to see that the sum of the volumes of the atoms that create the molecules is different. Compare carbon monoxide with carbon dioxide which has an extra (A), 6.218 x 10²6 extra volumes of oxygen atoms, but the total volumes of the gases is the same! [3 x (A) atoms equals 2 x (A) atoms].

Therefore the sum of the volumes of the parts (atoms in this case) does not add up correctly.

Again someone may say that the gases have spaces in them as well, or that the atoms have been reacted together to give different volumes to the molecules.

Now if you look back at all the examples where the sums don't add up correctly you can always find an excuse to force the notion of abstract volumes, but these abstract volumes are hardly ever found in the real Universe, except where you make everything equal first and don't allow this thing to be broken down to its constituent parts. Eg. Water is the same as water, salt is the same as salt, oxygen is the same as oxygen, but the constituent parts of water don't add up, nor the constituents of salt, not even oxygen's constituent parts (which is oxygen) doesn't add up.

What you really need is a model that can sum up the volumes of all the constituent parts that makes sense irrespective of whether it is a mix of gas, liquid, solid or anything else. If you look carefully, every 'real' volume in the Universe has a space or spaces within it, all the way down to the atomic level and beyond that to the nuclear level until you get to the quantum of space itself (which also has a space (hole) in it.

The quantum ceases to exit below this level when you eliminate the hole, and therefore can not represent anything 'real' in our Universe.

The only sensible thing to do is to incorporate the spaces that are contained in all 'real' volumes. I.e. work out the volume and characteristics of the quanta (of space) that make the Universe.

I believe that everything is made of these [Complex] volumes of quanta of space themselves, and that the combinations of these quanta is what makes dark, light, energy and matter and anything else in our Universe. I also believe that there is only one type of space quantum I.e. There is only one constituent to the Universe at the lowest level. 'Real' space itself which incorporates empty spaces.

The standard model of the Universe has multiple fundamental units, I say all of them can be broken down to volumes of 'Real' space quanta. I.e. At the lowest level they all have the same constituents, just space in different combinations and configurations. [The 'APE's].

6th June 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Added [Complex] to some of the volumes to clarify my definition of a volume.

Morph your mind with Morphological at

apepes.com