## Summary of the Universe

10th August 2020 Summary of the Universe

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

As I am getting older and my memory is getting worse, I can't remember where I have written certain things, so I keep repeating things in different places, partly on purpose to stitch different ideas together and partly to describe the same concept in a slightly different manner in the hope that people can understand what I am trying to convey.

In this Tea Break Book I will try and summarise some of the main points and hope people get an overview of everything, without explaining everything along the way.

Summary of the Universe.

The whole Universe is just One 'Complex volume', (to think about a simpler option, just think about the known Universe plus a bit extra, this makes it finite).

What is a 'Complex volume'?

A 'Complex volume' is a volume that is composed of other Complex volumes, and these are also composed of their Complex volumes, and so on, until you reach the quantum of space itself, which is also a Complex volume.

The quantum 'Complex volume' of space consists of 2 different volumes, the 'Real volume' (that always stays a fixed volume), and the 'Virtual volume' (that can vary, and is basically empty space, but specifically always empty at its center, and can never become zero).

A simplified analogy (not taking all the properties of the quantum of space into consideration):- take a real ring (like a wedding band) and place it on a table, end on. Now flick it with your finger (like a coin flicked). It will now look like a fuzzy sphere or ball. (If it spins fast enough you will not see the ring). This is a complex volume, the volume of the actual ring is equivalent to the 'Real volume' (it has a boundary) and the volume that is enclosed or encapsulated by the ring is the 'Virtual volume'. The sum of the two is the 'Complex volume' (it too has a boundary).

[Also note nothing ever exists at its center].

All the Universe is composed of these quanta, (irrespective of the number of dimensions) so all the properties of everything in the Universe has these same properties and all are emergent properties above the individual quanta.

[eg. All real particles, fermions, bosoms, fields and waves are created from these, or their interactions].

By definition of the fact that it is quantum (have boundaries) means that there is no such thing as a smooth continuous curve or wave at a scale larger than the quantum.

Similarly their is no such thing as a particle at a point in space.

[Everywhere that smooth curves, waves or particles at points are used above the quantum of space itself, means that it is an abstract simplification of Reality].

Let me build the Universe from the bottom up by simplifying everything first, adding dimensions and using the above principles.

[Also note that no dimension is independent of any other dimension for the same reason (made of 'Complex volume' quanta) and also our normal dimensions are emergent].

[Note everything in your world (Universe) can not be of a higher dimension than the world that you imagine in a lower dimensional world. eg, you can't have 2 dimensional beings in a 1 dimensional world, but you can have lower dimensional beings in a higher dimensional world. (A 2 D plane cannot live on a 1 D line, but a 1D line can live on a 2 D plane).

Imagine a finite one dimensional space world (line) with one dimensional beings (objects or particles) in it. The beings can only move forwards or backwards in 1 dimensional time (can't be 2D time see above note).

You can create any number of parallel 1D space worlds each with their own 1D space times.

Now imagine another 1D space world orthogonal (perpendicular or at right angles) to these other worlds, it too will have beings with their own 1D time, but note this 1D space is not in the same dimension (direction) as the other worlds, as it is in the direction of the second dimension of space in the 2D plane. You should also note that it's 1D time is not the same as the 1D space time of the other lines that live in the first dimension of space. This new 1D time is measuring time (and movement) at right angles to the first dimension of space, not forwards and backwards time, but sideways. (Imagine time stops in the forwards and backwards original 1D line, it does not stop in the sideways movement of time).

You can do the same thing for an additional 1D line (in the direction of the 3rd dimension of space) above and below the 2D plane with its own 1D space time.

From the above, you should see that each dimension of space has its own dimension of time and so on. 3D space has 3D time, 4D space will have 4D time. Time is not independent of space.

Sounds too complicated, lets simplify things.

Imagine a 2D world (a flat piece of paper), it can have any number of parallel 1D lines that compose it.

In the limit it is said to have an infinite number of lines that compose it.

Wrong, why?

It can only be true in the abstract sense.

Because I said everything is made of quanta and these are composed of a Real part and a Virtual part, (analogy the line is the Real part and the space between the lines will be the Virtual part, (remember can never become zero).

This 2D world can now be considered quantum, made of quanta of a lower dimension that itself, (actually becomes 2D quanta because the line with the space is 2D).

Analogy:- a real piece of lined paper (a page), it consists of quanta (the line and the space) all stuck together to form the whole plane. If the page is finite so are the number of quanta that compose it (lines + space), this space world is the sum of its quanta. No infinities here.

But what if this piece of paper were infinite?

Does it have to be infinite?

If all the worlds were flat, then this could be the case, but not for our worlds, because I said our Universe is made of quanta, and quanta are not flat, simplifying and pretending it's flat is just an abstract oversimplification of reality.

If it is not flat it must be curved, lets add some curves. Bend your 1D quantum space world :- you will get a finite circular quantum space world.

Bend all 1D quanta in the 2D page:- you get a roll of paper that is finite in one dimension, but possibly infinite in the second dimension. Now bend the second 1D lines that are along the length of the roll.

What do you get?

You get finite 1D quanta at right angles to the first, this new 2D plane is a toroidal surface (doughnut surface). [Note it is not a spherical surface].

These 2D surfaces can be made into 3D quanta by filling in some of the doughnut shape.

11th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Originally I just added the 5th dimension (which is the density of space itself, the first 4 already defined as 3D space and 4th time). But really there is another dimension that I called the 'In and Out' dimension. It is a matter of definitions which dimension is called what number, so as not to cause confusion, I will just say the additional space dimension is the 'In and Out' dimensions of space.

To arrive at this additional dimension you need to bend (curve) the finite 3D Space so that the quantum ends up expanding and contracting into this extra space dimension.

The logic goes thus:-

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a finite 1D line is in a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a curved 1D line (circle) is still in a higher dimension, but the 1D world lives in the 2D world. [It is embedded in the 2D world]. You should see that multiple separate 1D worlds can live (be embeded) in the same 2D plane. If you could move from one 1D world to another 1D world, you would have to travel into (or through) the second dimension first to do so, into a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a finite 2D plane is also in a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a curved 2D world (surface) is still in a higher dimension, but the 2D worlds live in the 3D world. [2D worlds are embedded in the 3D world]. Same logic as above. Think of a book full of individual pages, each page a 2D world, you have to move into the 3rd dimension to jump to the next page.

So anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a 'finite 3D world' is also in a higher dimension. Lots of finite 3D worlds must be living (embedded) in an extra (higher) dimension of space, as before you have to move into another higher dimension to go to the next finite 3D world.

You may think that it is still the same 3D world, just an extension of the same 3D world, but this only applies if you do not have a finite 3D world, if you can not go to the border (boundary) and jump into the next dimension. In a finite 3D world it has a boundary, therefore to go from one finite 3D world (past the boundary) to (and into) another finite 3D world you have to go into the next higher dimension. 4D space.

You can make the finite (4D) world move 'In and Out' of this extra dimension by adding some more curves, with the additional time dimensions. To see what actually happens you need a small video here!

[When I say move, I don't mean move sides, forwards or backwards or up or down in the upper dimension keeping its boundary fixed as it moves. What I mean is that it expands its complex volumes boundary all at the same time into the higher dimension].

Imagine the spinning fuzzy ring as the finite 4D world (the boundary is the edge of the fuzzy sphere), by adding curves you can make the fuzzy sphere expand outwards beyond its current 4D boundary into the higher dimensions.

Now if I say we don't live in a 3D world but we live in these higher dimensions and the real finite 3D worlds (more than 3) are these 'Complex volume' quanta (that are embedded inside our dimensions and create our dimensions), or (put another way our normal dimensions are emergent), it is easy to see.

Think of our normal 1,2,3 D space, as really being dimensions 7,8,9 D space and the quanta (finite 1,2,3,4..D spaces) move in the directions of 7,8,9 space (which becomes emergent, a length at our scale is the sum of the (embedded) quanta that make up that length) and dimension 10 as an amalgamated time.

To cut a long story short and to summarise some properties of these quanta (this new quantum complex volume) :-

Always has a hole in the middle, (can explain quantum tunneling as a probability of passing through the empty spaces when the correct size and alignment is achieved).

It has what I call 'time momentum', meaning it is in constant motion localised around an imaginary centre (never stopping, no time reversal), even when it appears stationary.

They twist and bend space clockwise then anti-clockwise in each cycle, (complex alignments of quanta can explain opposite poles of fields).

Each quantum is its opposite half of its cycle, 2 rotations (opposites)(4π) 1 cycle (in secondary ²time), (can explain the emergence of all opposites when quanta complex with each other, eventually creating matter).

It has a density (5th dimension, basically the real volume part) therefore it has an inbuilt Energy (intrinsic complex angular momentum from above).

They expand and contract, and wave characteristics emerge for all its overall dimensions in time (spherical dimensions, fuzzy ball), (can explain the mechanism of wave particle duality), because of rotations and twist, they pull and push space (other quanta) through them, and can explain the mechanism of gravity as a flow and twist of different densities of space in opposite directions (remember holes. So flow can go in both directions at the same time), net effect force of attraction, also explain cosmological constant as the difference between the pull (internal cross sectional area) and the push (external cross sectional area).

In addition, all the wave characteristics have a minimum and a maximum value built into the quantum (no zero (remember the hole, empty space in the centre), or infinity (it has a boundary)).

The surface moves faster than light in its many rotations (internal momenta), but the translational speed in dimensions 7,8,9 can't go faster than light. (Light is a complex of quantum spaces).

They can embed inside each other (in the virtual volume), (I.e. increase the density of energy, which potentially expands space (7,8,9)).

They can complex with each other (create a bounded complex of quanta), (matter becomes emergent), which increases the density and curvature of the space and reduces its wave function (which is why matter is inversely proportional to energy, in size), which then contracts space around it (7,8,9), (eventually black holes).

Ultimately creates all the forces proportional to their cross sectional areas, including black holes (information is sum of quanta, equal to 1/4 horizon which is directly equal to cross sectional area).

There is a finite number of them in the Universe that never changes, past, present and future. The total number is a prime number (therefore can not form any dynamic equilibrium, the eternal perpetual motion machine).

The gross curvature of space is merely the density distribution of the curvature of each quantum. Think of smaller circles having the greatest curvature the most compact (matter is the most curved space), which curves less the larger the circle, the least compact the further away from the mass.

Or as physicists say the closer to the mass the greater the curvature of space.

Curvature emerges from the quanta that create the different space densities (Complex volumes), matter energy and the flow of the vacuum (in both directions 'In and Out'). Remember even the vacuum is made of quanta, therefore has energy.

13th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

All the above is just abstract without the 11th dimension.

It should really be the first dimension because it is this dimension that makes everything real, without it everything is just abstract.

Why 11th dimension?

All the dimension numbers are a matter of convention and definition, where each dimension is given a number. The total number of dimensions is what is really important, so because dimension number 1 is already defined as the first dimension of space I have decided to allocate number 11 as the 'dimension of reality' because it should be the precursor to 1, therefore 11 sounds good to me. It also gives scope to allocate all the other dimensions below it.

The 11th dimension can be thought of as the 'Real' part of the 'Complex volume' of the quantum that makes it real, to distinguish it from things that are abstract.

You can also think of this dimension as part of the dimension of 'being' (not a being).

I also defined it as part of the 'Primary' dimension of ¹time, which I called 'Existanace', 'It is', 'therefore it is'.

This 'Existance' is eternal which distinguishes this from 'Existence' the other type of ³time which is transient (temporary). This second type of time is just a measure of the change of 'Existance'.

In effect the first type can be thought of as a measure of the amount of 'Real' space that exists, which never changes (in quantity), so in a Big Bang scenario where dimensions 7,8, and 9 expand the Universe from our perspective the amount of 'Existance' stays the same. All that changes is the composition and structure.

Note:- any Big Bang must start from a 'Complex volume' and expand into another 'Complex volume', space doesn't expand from a point (of lower dimensions) but points (actually smaller volumes) expand away from each other inside a bigger volume (the number of dimensions always stay the same).

I allocated dimension 5 as the dimension of 'the density of space' meaning initially the density of the quantum of space, from this you can compute the overall density of any locality in space.

The more curved compact the space the higher the density and the mass.

I also said that the quantum was dynamic, even when it appears stationary. Think of the spinning fuzzy ring (sphere), if you couldn't see it spinning you would think of it as stationary. Stationary is just an illusion at a macroscopic scale, internally the quantum is always moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, because of its internal complex momentum, externally it appears not to be moving, other than its expanding and contracting.

Just to clarify some aspects of time:- temporal time is a higher order of time (it is a duration) that emerges from consciousness (which is also emergent) different from what I call 'Global' or 'tertiary' ³time (clock time) (all emergent) and different from 'primary' and 'secondary' time. Secondary ²time is the time related to the quantum in all its internal movements.

If I carry on it won't be much of a summary! I really need some mini gifs or videos.

19th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

A small note to explain why the vacuum energy of space is not infinite.

If all of space is quantised (meaning including the vacuum) then each region of space is the sum of its quanta. Although these quanta have wave characteristics they still have a boundary and are discrete, even though the sum of the quanta create waves of energy.

Imagine a simplified analogy that all the quanta were marbles or ball bearings and in this region you create a standing wave, to do this you just string the marbles together like beads. One wave one wavelength one frequency, you can now rearrange this wave to 2 waves, then 3, 4 etc. (These are equivalent to modes of waves in Fourier analysis, not really important). Each time you reduce the wavelength you increase the energy (that is the formula for waves). If you believe in smooth curves then you can have an infinite number of waves of greater energy as you reduce the wave length, you then end up with infinite energy in this region of space.

But as I said earlier space is quantised like these marbles and therefore not smooth, so you can not physically create any wave smaller than the marble itself. Imagine you line up all the marbles in a straight line, you can see the wave as a sine wave along the top and bottom of alternate marbles. The wavelength is the length of 2 marbles, the greatest curvature (the surface of the marble), you can not create a wave less than the marble because it would mean you would have to destroy the marble to create a tighter alternative curve. So the limit of energy in waves is proportional to the size of the quantum itself, which has its own minimum size, therefore no region of space can have infinite energy. It also follows any region of space less than infinity has therefore a finite amount of possible energy. Eg. The known Universe is finite, so finite number of quanta and finite amount of energy.

I should stop but can't help myself.

Locality is defined by the boundaries of the quanta themselves, but because of flow (In and Out of other quanta) of these boundaries these can affect other regions of space around them.

Before and after observation in quantum theory.

Before observation a particle is considered as a spread wave function everywhere in the wave (remember my definition at the beginning still applies), on observation the wave is said to collapse to reveal its position (my definition still applies except that it is not at a point but at a smaller volume, smaller wavelength).

The simplified analogy I would like you to consider is imagine you had a large ring and 2 strings attached at each side of the ring, and with a weight (stone) at the other end of each string. Hold one end and rotate it above your head, the stone at the free end will stretch the string, if you were to let go, the 2 stones will spin in the air with the string held tight spinning in the plane. Now if there was no gravity it would just keep spinning.

Where is the string?

If you were blind you could not see the string, but you could observe it by raising your hand.

Where ever you raise your hand inside the spinning stones and grab the string (except inside the ring) the string will wrap around your hand and bring the stones together. (Similar to wave function collapse).

Where is the string?

Where was the string?

Was the string everywhere before you observed it?

The answer to this will depend on your definition of time, if you are using temporal time, then yes it was everywhere in the plane of the spin (except the centre of the ring). If you are using clock ³time then the answer will depend on the accuracy of your clock, more yes the less accurate your clock. If you are using secondary ²time, then the answer is no. It is only at specific points in space at any one ²time, not everywhere, it just moves about within the wave function.

You should see that the string occupies a cross sectional area of the diameter of the string stretched out, when not observed, but occupies a cross sectional area a bit wider than your wrist when observed, I.e. The area collapses when observed.

[In this simplified example there is no actual wave function, but you could create a wave function by replacing the string with elastic bands (springs) which would create an oscillating expanding and contracting cross sectional area, then you could truly say the wave function collapsed. Obviously this is still a simplification, but you should note that it never collapses to a point! in either case].

6th September 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

To carry on from above.

The collapsed string around your wrist can be thought of as a particle after it was observed, but it was not in this form superimposed in the cross sectional large area (in the wave function), as if it was in say 1oo different places at the same time, (divide the large area by the small area and pretend there was enough space to fit 100 of then in this area).

So when you observe it and there is only one of them, the other 99 went and (poof) created 99 other worlds! (Many worlds interpretation of quantum field theory).

What was actually happening was there was only one of them spread in this area, again superimposed in this space, and collapsed to just one, and there were no other (poof) 99 worlds created!

In short the mathematics of Quantum Field theory is just a convenient tool to do calculations, and the wrong conclusions are made when the maths is misinterpreted, or the maths is working with an incorrect model.

Another note:- when you reduce the number of dimension to solve a problem, you always lose information.

Eg. Newtonian. A car is a multidimensional object, but you reduce it (by magic, poof) to a point (zero dimension), add abstract mass and force and predict a trajectory (one dimensional) to another point (zero dimension), then reconstruct the car (by magic, poof) at that point. This is convenient to do simple calculations and get results, but you must never forget, that no part of the car was ever at this point you created nor did any point on the car ever go along a one dimensional trajectory.

Quantum Field Theory. Uses smooth curves when no observation, and discrete quanta (points) upon observation!

These are contrary concepts of logic, therefore you are bound to come up with incorrect conclusions when you try and relate this to the real world. Both real smooth curves, before observation, and points after observation are wrong concepts to be using as representing the detailed real world.

The same goes for Einstein, no such thing as smooth curves at the quantum level, just simplified maths to solve problems. (Actually quite complex maths, but conceptually simple).

To unite all classical and quantum theories together you need to change some of your basic assumptions about the real world, not try and change the real world to fit in with the mathematics of the wrong model of the world.

Eg. If you believe particles can be solid, through and through, and you fire some energetic particles with not enough energy to go through a solid wall, you don't expect any particles to end up on the other side of the wall. So you fire 100, and expect none on the other side, you do the experiment and 3 manage to go through! Expected 0. Invent quantum tunneling as a probabilistic weird phenomenon.

But if you believe that all particles have a hole in the middle of them. Fire 100, 3 turn up on the other side. Invent quantum tunneling, but this time there is nothing weird, you just calculate the probability that some have managed to go through the holes. Expected result 3.

Morph your mind with Morphological at

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Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

As I am getting older and my memory is getting worse, I can't remember where I have written certain things, so I keep repeating things in different places, partly on purpose to stitch different ideas together and partly to describe the same concept in a slightly different manner in the hope that people can understand what I am trying to convey.

In this Tea Break Book I will try and summarise some of the main points and hope people get an overview of everything, without explaining everything along the way.

Summary of the Universe.

The whole Universe is just One 'Complex volume', (to think about a simpler option, just think about the known Universe plus a bit extra, this makes it finite).

What is a 'Complex volume'?

A 'Complex volume' is a volume that is composed of other Complex volumes, and these are also composed of their Complex volumes, and so on, until you reach the quantum of space itself, which is also a Complex volume.

The quantum 'Complex volume' of space consists of 2 different volumes, the 'Real volume' (that always stays a fixed volume), and the 'Virtual volume' (that can vary, and is basically empty space, but specifically always empty at its center, and can never become zero).

A simplified analogy (not taking all the properties of the quantum of space into consideration):- take a real ring (like a wedding band) and place it on a table, end on. Now flick it with your finger (like a coin flicked). It will now look like a fuzzy sphere or ball. (If it spins fast enough you will not see the ring). This is a complex volume, the volume of the actual ring is equivalent to the 'Real volume' (it has a boundary) and the volume that is enclosed or encapsulated by the ring is the 'Virtual volume'. The sum of the two is the 'Complex volume' (it too has a boundary).

[Also note nothing ever exists at its center].

All the Universe is composed of these quanta, (irrespective of the number of dimensions) so all the properties of everything in the Universe has these same properties and all are emergent properties above the individual quanta.

[eg. All real particles, fermions, bosoms, fields and waves are created from these, or their interactions].

By definition of the fact that it is quantum (have boundaries) means that there is no such thing as a smooth continuous curve or wave at a scale larger than the quantum.

Similarly their is no such thing as a particle at a point in space.

[Everywhere that smooth curves, waves or particles at points are used above the quantum of space itself, means that it is an abstract simplification of Reality].

Let me build the Universe from the bottom up by simplifying everything first, adding dimensions and using the above principles.

[Also note that no dimension is independent of any other dimension for the same reason (made of 'Complex volume' quanta) and also our normal dimensions are emergent].

[Note everything in your world (Universe) can not be of a higher dimension than the world that you imagine in a lower dimensional world. eg, you can't have 2 dimensional beings in a 1 dimensional world, but you can have lower dimensional beings in a higher dimensional world. (A 2 D plane cannot live on a 1 D line, but a 1D line can live on a 2 D plane).

Imagine a finite one dimensional space world (line) with one dimensional beings (objects or particles) in it. The beings can only move forwards or backwards in 1 dimensional time (can't be 2D time see above note).

You can create any number of parallel 1D space worlds each with their own 1D space times.

Now imagine another 1D space world orthogonal (perpendicular or at right angles) to these other worlds, it too will have beings with their own 1D time, but note this 1D space is not in the same dimension (direction) as the other worlds, as it is in the direction of the second dimension of space in the 2D plane. You should also note that it's 1D time is not the same as the 1D space time of the other lines that live in the first dimension of space. This new 1D time is measuring time (and movement) at right angles to the first dimension of space, not forwards and backwards time, but sideways. (Imagine time stops in the forwards and backwards original 1D line, it does not stop in the sideways movement of time).

You can do the same thing for an additional 1D line (in the direction of the 3rd dimension of space) above and below the 2D plane with its own 1D space time.

From the above, you should see that each dimension of space has its own dimension of time and so on. 3D space has 3D time, 4D space will have 4D time. Time is not independent of space.

Sounds too complicated, lets simplify things.

Imagine a 2D world (a flat piece of paper), it can have any number of parallel 1D lines that compose it.

In the limit it is said to have an infinite number of lines that compose it.

Wrong, why?

It can only be true in the abstract sense.

Because I said everything is made of quanta and these are composed of a Real part and a Virtual part, (analogy the line is the Real part and the space between the lines will be the Virtual part, (remember can never become zero).

This 2D world can now be considered quantum, made of quanta of a lower dimension that itself, (actually becomes 2D quanta because the line with the space is 2D).

Analogy:- a real piece of lined paper (a page), it consists of quanta (the line and the space) all stuck together to form the whole plane. If the page is finite so are the number of quanta that compose it (lines + space), this space world is the sum of its quanta. No infinities here.

But what if this piece of paper were infinite?

Does it have to be infinite?

If all the worlds were flat, then this could be the case, but not for our worlds, because I said our Universe is made of quanta, and quanta are not flat, simplifying and pretending it's flat is just an abstract oversimplification of reality.

If it is not flat it must be curved, lets add some curves. Bend your 1D quantum space world :- you will get a finite circular quantum space world.

Bend all 1D quanta in the 2D page:- you get a roll of paper that is finite in one dimension, but possibly infinite in the second dimension. Now bend the second 1D lines that are along the length of the roll.

What do you get?

You get finite 1D quanta at right angles to the first, this new 2D plane is a toroidal surface (doughnut surface). [Note it is not a spherical surface].

These 2D surfaces can be made into 3D quanta by filling in some of the doughnut shape.

11th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

Originally I just added the 5th dimension (which is the density of space itself, the first 4 already defined as 3D space and 4th time). But really there is another dimension that I called the 'In and Out' dimension. It is a matter of definitions which dimension is called what number, so as not to cause confusion, I will just say the additional space dimension is the 'In and Out' dimensions of space.

To arrive at this additional dimension you need to bend (curve) the finite 3D Space so that the quantum ends up expanding and contracting into this extra space dimension.

The logic goes thus:-

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a finite 1D line is in a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a curved 1D line (circle) is still in a higher dimension, but the 1D world lives in the 2D world. [It is embedded in the 2D world]. You should see that multiple separate 1D worlds can live (be embeded) in the same 2D plane. If you could move from one 1D world to another 1D world, you would have to travel into (or through) the second dimension first to do so, into a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a finite 2D plane is also in a higher dimension.

Anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a curved 2D world (surface) is still in a higher dimension, but the 2D worlds live in the 3D world. [2D worlds are embedded in the 3D world]. Same logic as above. Think of a book full of individual pages, each page a 2D world, you have to move into the 3rd dimension to jump to the next page.

So anything outside (beyond the boundary of) a 'finite 3D world' is also in a higher dimension. Lots of finite 3D worlds must be living (embedded) in an extra (higher) dimension of space, as before you have to move into another higher dimension to go to the next finite 3D world.

You may think that it is still the same 3D world, just an extension of the same 3D world, but this only applies if you do not have a finite 3D world, if you can not go to the border (boundary) and jump into the next dimension. In a finite 3D world it has a boundary, therefore to go from one finite 3D world (past the boundary) to (and into) another finite 3D world you have to go into the next higher dimension. 4D space.

You can make the finite (4D) world move 'In and Out' of this extra dimension by adding some more curves, with the additional time dimensions. To see what actually happens you need a small video here!

[When I say move, I don't mean move sides, forwards or backwards or up or down in the upper dimension keeping its boundary fixed as it moves. What I mean is that it expands its complex volumes boundary all at the same time into the higher dimension].

Imagine the spinning fuzzy ring as the finite 4D world (the boundary is the edge of the fuzzy sphere), by adding curves you can make the fuzzy sphere expand outwards beyond its current 4D boundary into the higher dimensions.

Now if I say we don't live in a 3D world but we live in these higher dimensions and the real finite 3D worlds (more than 3) are these 'Complex volume' quanta (that are embedded inside our dimensions and create our dimensions), or (put another way our normal dimensions are emergent), it is easy to see.

Think of our normal 1,2,3 D space, as really being dimensions 7,8,9 D space and the quanta (finite 1,2,3,4..D spaces) move in the directions of 7,8,9 space (which becomes emergent, a length at our scale is the sum of the (embedded) quanta that make up that length) and dimension 10 as an amalgamated time.

To cut a long story short and to summarise some properties of these quanta (this new quantum complex volume) :-

Always has a hole in the middle, (can explain quantum tunneling as a probability of passing through the empty spaces when the correct size and alignment is achieved).

It has what I call 'time momentum', meaning it is in constant motion localised around an imaginary centre (never stopping, no time reversal), even when it appears stationary.

They twist and bend space clockwise then anti-clockwise in each cycle, (complex alignments of quanta can explain opposite poles of fields).

Each quantum is its opposite half of its cycle, 2 rotations (opposites)(4π) 1 cycle (in secondary ²time), (can explain the emergence of all opposites when quanta complex with each other, eventually creating matter).

It has a density (5th dimension, basically the real volume part) therefore it has an inbuilt Energy (intrinsic complex angular momentum from above).

They expand and contract, and wave characteristics emerge for all its overall dimensions in time (spherical dimensions, fuzzy ball), (can explain the mechanism of wave particle duality), because of rotations and twist, they pull and push space (other quanta) through them, and can explain the mechanism of gravity as a flow and twist of different densities of space in opposite directions (remember holes. So flow can go in both directions at the same time), net effect force of attraction, also explain cosmological constant as the difference between the pull (internal cross sectional area) and the push (external cross sectional area).

In addition, all the wave characteristics have a minimum and a maximum value built into the quantum (no zero (remember the hole, empty space in the centre), or infinity (it has a boundary)).

The surface moves faster than light in its many rotations (internal momenta), but the translational speed in dimensions 7,8,9 can't go faster than light. (Light is a complex of quantum spaces).

They can embed inside each other (in the virtual volume), (I.e. increase the density of energy, which potentially expands space (7,8,9)).

They can complex with each other (create a bounded complex of quanta), (matter becomes emergent), which increases the density and curvature of the space and reduces its wave function (which is why matter is inversely proportional to energy, in size), which then contracts space around it (7,8,9), (eventually black holes).

Ultimately creates all the forces proportional to their cross sectional areas, including black holes (information is sum of quanta, equal to 1/4 horizon which is directly equal to cross sectional area).

There is a finite number of them in the Universe that never changes, past, present and future. The total number is a prime number (therefore can not form any dynamic equilibrium, the eternal perpetual motion machine).

The gross curvature of space is merely the density distribution of the curvature of each quantum. Think of smaller circles having the greatest curvature the most compact (matter is the most curved space), which curves less the larger the circle, the least compact the further away from the mass.

Or as physicists say the closer to the mass the greater the curvature of space.

Curvature emerges from the quanta that create the different space densities (Complex volumes), matter energy and the flow of the vacuum (in both directions 'In and Out'). Remember even the vacuum is made of quanta, therefore has energy.

13th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

All the above is just abstract without the 11th dimension.

It should really be the first dimension because it is this dimension that makes everything real, without it everything is just abstract.

Why 11th dimension?

All the dimension numbers are a matter of convention and definition, where each dimension is given a number. The total number of dimensions is what is really important, so because dimension number 1 is already defined as the first dimension of space I have decided to allocate number 11 as the 'dimension of reality' because it should be the precursor to 1, therefore 11 sounds good to me. It also gives scope to allocate all the other dimensions below it.

The 11th dimension can be thought of as the 'Real' part of the 'Complex volume' of the quantum that makes it real, to distinguish it from things that are abstract.

You can also think of this dimension as part of the dimension of 'being' (not a being).

I also defined it as part of the 'Primary' dimension of ¹time, which I called 'Existanace', 'It is', 'therefore it is'.

This 'Existance' is eternal which distinguishes this from 'Existence' the other type of ³time which is transient (temporary). This second type of time is just a measure of the change of 'Existance'.

In effect the first type can be thought of as a measure of the amount of 'Real' space that exists, which never changes (in quantity), so in a Big Bang scenario where dimensions 7,8, and 9 expand the Universe from our perspective the amount of 'Existance' stays the same. All that changes is the composition and structure.

Note:- any Big Bang must start from a 'Complex volume' and expand into another 'Complex volume', space doesn't expand from a point (of lower dimensions) but points (actually smaller volumes) expand away from each other inside a bigger volume (the number of dimensions always stay the same).

I allocated dimension 5 as the dimension of 'the density of space' meaning initially the density of the quantum of space, from this you can compute the overall density of any locality in space.

The more curved compact the space the higher the density and the mass.

I also said that the quantum was dynamic, even when it appears stationary. Think of the spinning fuzzy ring (sphere), if you couldn't see it spinning you would think of it as stationary. Stationary is just an illusion at a macroscopic scale, internally the quantum is always moving at a speed greater than the speed of light, because of its internal complex momentum, externally it appears not to be moving, other than its expanding and contracting.

Just to clarify some aspects of time:- temporal time is a higher order of time (it is a duration) that emerges from consciousness (which is also emergent) different from what I call 'Global' or 'tertiary' ³time (clock time) (all emergent) and different from 'primary' and 'secondary' time. Secondary ²time is the time related to the quantum in all its internal movements.

If I carry on it won't be much of a summary! I really need some mini gifs or videos.

19th August 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

A small note to explain why the vacuum energy of space is not infinite.

If all of space is quantised (meaning including the vacuum) then each region of space is the sum of its quanta. Although these quanta have wave characteristics they still have a boundary and are discrete, even though the sum of the quanta create waves of energy.

Imagine a simplified analogy that all the quanta were marbles or ball bearings and in this region you create a standing wave, to do this you just string the marbles together like beads. One wave one wavelength one frequency, you can now rearrange this wave to 2 waves, then 3, 4 etc. (These are equivalent to modes of waves in Fourier analysis, not really important). Each time you reduce the wavelength you increase the energy (that is the formula for waves). If you believe in smooth curves then you can have an infinite number of waves of greater energy as you reduce the wave length, you then end up with infinite energy in this region of space.

But as I said earlier space is quantised like these marbles and therefore not smooth, so you can not physically create any wave smaller than the marble itself. Imagine you line up all the marbles in a straight line, you can see the wave as a sine wave along the top and bottom of alternate marbles. The wavelength is the length of 2 marbles, the greatest curvature (the surface of the marble), you can not create a wave less than the marble because it would mean you would have to destroy the marble to create a tighter alternative curve. So the limit of energy in waves is proportional to the size of the quantum itself, which has its own minimum size, therefore no region of space can have infinite energy. It also follows any region of space less than infinity has therefore a finite amount of possible energy. Eg. The known Universe is finite, so finite number of quanta and finite amount of energy.

I should stop but can't help myself.

Locality is defined by the boundaries of the quanta themselves, but because of flow (In and Out of other quanta) of these boundaries these can affect other regions of space around them.

Before and after observation in quantum theory.

Before observation a particle is considered as a spread wave function everywhere in the wave (remember my definition at the beginning still applies), on observation the wave is said to collapse to reveal its position (my definition still applies except that it is not at a point but at a smaller volume, smaller wavelength).

The simplified analogy I would like you to consider is imagine you had a large ring and 2 strings attached at each side of the ring, and with a weight (stone) at the other end of each string. Hold one end and rotate it above your head, the stone at the free end will stretch the string, if you were to let go, the 2 stones will spin in the air with the string held tight spinning in the plane. Now if there was no gravity it would just keep spinning.

Where is the string?

If you were blind you could not see the string, but you could observe it by raising your hand.

Where ever you raise your hand inside the spinning stones and grab the string (except inside the ring) the string will wrap around your hand and bring the stones together. (Similar to wave function collapse).

Where is the string?

Where was the string?

Was the string everywhere before you observed it?

The answer to this will depend on your definition of time, if you are using temporal time, then yes it was everywhere in the plane of the spin (except the centre of the ring). If you are using clock ³time then the answer will depend on the accuracy of your clock, more yes the less accurate your clock. If you are using secondary ²time, then the answer is no. It is only at specific points in space at any one ²time, not everywhere, it just moves about within the wave function.

You should see that the string occupies a cross sectional area of the diameter of the string stretched out, when not observed, but occupies a cross sectional area a bit wider than your wrist when observed, I.e. The area collapses when observed.

[In this simplified example there is no actual wave function, but you could create a wave function by replacing the string with elastic bands (springs) which would create an oscillating expanding and contracting cross sectional area, then you could truly say the wave function collapsed. Obviously this is still a simplification, but you should note that it never collapses to a point! in either case].

6th September 2020

Private & Confidential Copyright © Mr A Pépés

To carry on from above.

The collapsed string around your wrist can be thought of as a particle after it was observed, but it was not in this form superimposed in the cross sectional large area (in the wave function), as if it was in say 1oo different places at the same time, (divide the large area by the small area and pretend there was enough space to fit 100 of then in this area).

So when you observe it and there is only one of them, the other 99 went and (poof) created 99 other worlds! (Many worlds interpretation of quantum field theory).

What was actually happening was there was only one of them spread in this area, again superimposed in this space, and collapsed to just one, and there were no other (poof) 99 worlds created!

In short the mathematics of Quantum Field theory is just a convenient tool to do calculations, and the wrong conclusions are made when the maths is misinterpreted, or the maths is working with an incorrect model.

Another note:- when you reduce the number of dimension to solve a problem, you always lose information.

Eg. Newtonian. A car is a multidimensional object, but you reduce it (by magic, poof) to a point (zero dimension), add abstract mass and force and predict a trajectory (one dimensional) to another point (zero dimension), then reconstruct the car (by magic, poof) at that point. This is convenient to do simple calculations and get results, but you must never forget, that no part of the car was ever at this point you created nor did any point on the car ever go along a one dimensional trajectory.

Quantum Field Theory. Uses smooth curves when no observation, and discrete quanta (points) upon observation!

These are contrary concepts of logic, therefore you are bound to come up with incorrect conclusions when you try and relate this to the real world. Both real smooth curves, before observation, and points after observation are wrong concepts to be using as representing the detailed real world.

The same goes for Einstein, no such thing as smooth curves at the quantum level, just simplified maths to solve problems. (Actually quite complex maths, but conceptually simple).

To unite all classical and quantum theories together you need to change some of your basic assumptions about the real world, not try and change the real world to fit in with the mathematics of the wrong model of the world.

Eg. If you believe particles can be solid, through and through, and you fire some energetic particles with not enough energy to go through a solid wall, you don't expect any particles to end up on the other side of the wall. So you fire 100, and expect none on the other side, you do the experiment and 3 manage to go through! Expected 0. Invent quantum tunneling as a probabilistic weird phenomenon.

But if you believe that all particles have a hole in the middle of them. Fire 100, 3 turn up on the other side. Invent quantum tunneling, but this time there is nothing weird, you just calculate the probability that some have managed to go through the holes. Expected result 3.

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